Psychological Empowerment and Psychological Well-Being as Job Performance Mediators


  • Alfa Santoso Budiwidjojo Putra Universitas Pignatelli Triputra
  • Evi Dewi Kusumawati Universitas Pignatelli Triputra
  • Dewi Kartikasari Universitas Pignatelli Triputra



organizational support, empowerment, well-being, performance


This study aims to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), psychological empowerment, psychological well-being, and job performance among 150 employees in the Indonesian telecommunications sector. This sample size aligns with the requirements for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. Data was collected through a questionnaire using a Likert scale with two parts, covering respondent profiles and research variables. SmartPLS was employed for data analysis, and various tests were conducted to ensure data reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. The findings highlight key factors influencing job performance in this context. Firstly, psychological empowerment has a significant positive impact on job performance, emphasizing the importance of empowering employees for enhanced productivity. Secondly, psychological well-being also significantly influences job performance, indicating the connection between employees' mental health and their job performance. Interestingly, perceived organizational support (POS) itself doesn't directly impact job performance but indirectly influences it through the mediation of psychological empowerment. In other words, strong organizational support boosts employees' empowerment, leading to improved job performance. The study also underscores the joint mediating roles of psychological empowerment and psychological well-being, suggesting that organizations should focus on enhancing POS while nurturing empowerment and well-being to optimize job performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Afzali, A.; Motahari, A.A.; Hatami-Shirkouhi, L. (2014). Investigating the influence of perceived organizational support, psychological empowerment and organizational learning on job performance: an empirical investigation, Technical Gazette 21(3): 623-629.

Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, A.; Inam, U.; Farooq, A.; Muhammad, B.; Muhammad, U. (2010). Perceived Organizational Support and Psychological Empowerment, European Journal of Social Sciences 17(2): 186-192.

Alvi, U. (2017). The Effect of Psychological Wellbeing on Employee Job Performance: Comparison between the Employees of Projectized and Non-Projectized Organizations, Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-5.

Aryee, S., Chen, Z.X., (2006). Leader-member exchange in a Chinese context: antecedents, the mediating role of psychological empowerment and outcomes. Journal of Business Research 59 (7), 793–801.

Asgari, A., Silong, A. D., Ahmad, A., & Samah, B. A. (2008). The Relationship between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Organizational Justice, Leader-Member Exchange, Perceived Organizational Support, Trust in Management and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. European Journal of Scientific Research, 23(2), 227–242.

Baptiste, N. R. (2008). Tightening the link between employee wellbeing at work and performance: A new dimension for HRM, Management Decision 46(2): 284-309.

Bogler, R., & Nir, A. E. (2012). The importance of teachers' perceived organizational support to job satisfaction: What's empowerment got to do with it? Journal of Educational Administration, 50(3), 287-306.

Brunetto, Y.; Farr-Wharton, R.; Shacklock, K. (2011). Supervisor–Nurse Relationships, Teamwork, Role Ambiguity and Wellbeing: Public Versus Private Sector Nurses, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 49: 143–164.

Caesens, G.; Bouchat, P; Stinglhamber, F. (2020). Perceived Organizational Support and Psychological Empowerment: A Multi-Sample Study, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62(7): 526 – 531.

Caesens, G; Stinglhamber, F; Ohana, M. (2016),"Perceived organizational support and well-being: a weekly study", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 31 Iss 7, pp. 1214 – 1230.

Çankir, B. and Şahin, S. (2018). Psychological well-being and job performance: the mediating role of work engagement. Hitit University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 11(3), 2549-2560. doi: 10.17218/hititsosbil.487244

Chen, Z., Aryee, S., & Lee, C. (2005). Test of a mediation model of perceived organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 457–470.

Chiang, C.-F., Hsieh, T.-S. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management 31, 180–190.

Chin, W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling, in G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.). Modern Methods for Business Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 295–336.

Choi, J. (2006). Multilevel and cross-level effects of workplace attitudes and group member relations on interpersonal helping behavior. Human Performance, 19, 383–402.

Chow, I.H.S., Lo, T.W.C., Sha, Z., Hong, J., (2006). The impact of developmental experience, empowerment, and organizational support on catering service staff performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management 25 (3), 478– 495.

Chuang, C. H., & Liao, H. (2010). Strategic human resource management in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customers. Personnel Psychology, 63, 153–196.

Degago, E. (2014). A Study on Impact of Psychological empowerment on Employee Performance in Small and Medium Scale Enterprise Sectors, European Journal of Business and Management 6(27): 60-71.

Ehigie, B., & Otukoya, O. (2005). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviour in a government-owned enterprise in Nigeria. European Journal of Work and Organization Psychology, 14, 389–399.

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., Sowa, D., (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology 71 (3), 500–507.

Gupta, M.A; Vohra, N; Bhatnagar, D. (2010). Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Commitment: The Mediational Influence of Psychological Well-Being, Journal of Business and Management, 16(2), 105 - 124.

Hair, J.F.JR.; Black, W.C.; Babin, B.J.; Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International Inc.

Hechanova, M.R.M., Alampay, R.B.A., Franco, E.P., (2006). Psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and performance among Filipino service workers. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 9 (1), 72–78.

Hui, C., Wong, A., & Tjosvold, D. (2007). Turnover intention and performance in China: The role of positive affectivity, Chinese values, perceived organizational support and constructive controversy. Journal of Occupational and Organization Psychology, 80, 735–751.

Indradevi, R. (2011). Employee Performance through Psychological Empowerment, Ganpat University-Faculty of Management Studies Journal of Management and Research 3: 19-33.

Jibeen, T.; Khalid, R. (2010). Predictors of Psychological well-being of Pakistani Immigrants in Toronto, Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34: 452–464.

Kundi, Y.M., Aboramadan, M., Elhamalawi, E.M.I., Shahid, S. (2020). Employee psychological well-being and job performance: exploring mediating and moderating mechanisms, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Kuvaas, B. (2008). An exploration of how the employee-organization relationship affects the linkage between perception of developmental human resource practices and employee outcomes. Journal of Management Studies, 45, 1–25.

Mcclain, A. (2002). Estimating the effects of empowerment on Black women's psychological well-being. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(7-A), 2573.

Ng, T. W. H.; Sorensen, K. L. (2008). Toward a further understanding of the relationships between perceptions of support and work attitudes: a meta-analysis, Group & Organization Management 33(3): 243-268.

Ni, C.; Wang, Y. (2015). The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support and Core Self-Evaluation on Employee’s Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 3, 73-81.

Panaccio, A. and Vandenberghe, C. (2009). “Perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and psychological well-being: a longitudinal study”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 75 No. 2, pp. 224-236.

Patrick, A., & Laschinger, H. K. S. (2006). The effect of structural empowerment and perceived organizational support on middle level nurse managers’ role satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(1), 13–22.

Rahi, S. (2022). Investigating the role of employee psychological well-being and psychological empowerment with relation to work engagement and sustainable employability, International Journal of Ethics and Systems 38(2): 266-285.

Rahi, S. (2023). Fostering employee work engagement and sustainable employment during COVID-19 crisis through HR practices, employee psychological well-being and psychological empowerment, Industrial and Commercial Training 55(3): 324-345.

Rhoades, L.; Eisenberger, R.; Armeli, S. (2001). Affective Commitment to the Organization: The Contribution of Perceived Organizational Support, Journal of Applied Psychology 86(5): 825-836.

Schermuly, C.C.; Meyer, B. (2016). Good relationships at work: the effects of Leader-Member Exchange and Team-Member Exchange on psychological empowerment, emotional exhaustion, and depression, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 37, 673–691.

Spreitzer, G.M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimensions, measurement, and validation, Academy of Management Journal 38(5): 1442-1465.

Tastan, S.B. (2013). The relationship between psychological empowerment and psychological wellbeing: the role of self-efficacy perception and social support. Temmuz, 10(40): 139-154.

Thomas, C. H.; Lankau, M. J. (2009). Preventing Burnout: The Effects of LMX and Mentoring on Socialization, Role Stress, and Burnout, Human Resource Management 48: 417–432.

Tuuli, M.M.; Rowlinson, S. (2009). Performance consequences of psychological empowerment, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 135(12): 1334-1347.




How to Cite

Putra, A. S. B., Kusumawati, E. D., & Kartikasari, D. (2023). Psychological Empowerment and Psychological Well-Being as Job Performance Mediators. Journal of Business Management and Economic Development, 2(01), 127–141.