Towards A Dynamic Model of Human Needs: A Critical Analysis of Maslow's Hierarchy


  • Belal Dahiam Saif Ghaleb Sakarya University



Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Motivation Theory, Cultural and Social Influences on Motivation, Complex Human Needs, People's Needs and motivation, Dynamic Model of Human Needs


This paper critically analyzed Abraham Maslow's well-known hierarchy of needs theory (1943), identified its shortcomings, and examined previous studies in the literature on qualitative research methods. Moreover, it discussed the suitability of the theory to human needs and its scientific nature, considering the qualifications, dynamics, variability, and nature of human needs. Maslow proposed a rigid hierarchical framework, categorizing human needs from physiological to self-actualization. Over time, the theory faced criticism for disregarding scientific principles and overlooking the objective and subjective aspects of human needs. Instead of rigorous scientific research, the theory heavily relied on Maslow's personal observations and clinical experiences. This paper posits that Maslow overlooked socio-cultural influences that shape motivation and emphasizes how social and economic contexts prioritize needs. Moreover, the lack of empirical evidence is identified as a weakness compromising the theory's validity. The article also, proposes an updated framework considering the objectivity and subjectivity of human needs, scientific research principles, technological connections, sustainability, socio-cultural influences, arbitrary human behavior and needs, personal preferences, and emotional factors. It advocates for acknowledging that needs circulate dynamically through interpersonal networks rather than being staged rigidly, thereby supporting theoretical evolution. Additionally, the paper identifies and offers potential solutions to eight fundamental issues associated with the theory. In this study, a literature review was conducted, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs was analyzed and its deficiencies were identified and eliminated. Igor Kospov's model was examined and explained to eliminate its flaws. Finally, instead of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the article proposes a model or set of clustered needs that are compatible with human needs and scientific, dynamic, interactive, prioritized by humans, and influenced and influenced by culture, technological developments and the human environment. The model, or clustered set of needs, consists of several clusters. These clusters are interconnected and influence each other. In other words, the same person can take steps towards self-actualization and experience the indispensable feature of social belonging while he satisfies the physiological needs of drinking water and eating, because human needs can vary from person to person, from place to place, from time to time and from situation to situation, even within the same person.


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Author Biography

Belal Dahiam Saif Ghaleb, Sakarya University

I was born on July 5, 1994, in Yemen. I completed my primary, middle, and high school education in Yemen. I graduated from Sakarya University with a degree in Political Science and Public Administration. Later, I obtained a master’s degree in quality management from the Institute of Natural Sciences at Sakarya University. While studying in the Quality Management department, I began my second master's degree in the Department of Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations in the Department of Labor Economics at the Institute of Social Sciences. İn These Fields İ Want to Be a Theorist and Author.


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How to Cite

Ghaleb, B. D. S. (2024). Towards A Dynamic Model of Human Needs: A Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Hierarchy. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach Research and Science, 2(03), 1028–1046.